Classification of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

- Sep 06, 2018 -

Lithium cobaltate cathode material:

At present, the largest and most common lithium ion battery cathode material has stable structure, high specific capacity and outstanding comprehensive performance, but its safety is poor and the cost is very high. It is mainly used for small and medium-sized batteries with a nominal voltage of 3.7V.

Lithium manganate cathode material:

A low-cost, safe and good cathode material, but the material itself is not stable, and it is easy to decompose and generate gas. Therefore, it is often used in combination with other materials to reduce the cost of the battery core, but its cycle life decays faster and is easier. Inflated, the life is relatively short, mainly used for large and medium-sized batteries, power battery, its nominal voltage is 3.8V.

Lithium nickel cobalt manganese ternary cathode material:

A material with relatively balanced capacity and safety, the cycle performance is better than that of normal lithium cobalt oxide. Its nominal voltage is only 3.5-3.6V in the early stage due to technical reasons, and there are restrictions on the scope of use, but until now, The formula is continuously improved and the structure is perfect. The nominal voltage of the battery has reached 3.7V, and the capacity has reached or exceeded the level of lithium cobalt oxide. The world's five major battery brands SANYO, PANASONIC, SONY, LG, SAMSUNG have launched ternary materials. The battery cells, a considerable part of the notebook battery line replaces the previous lithium cobalt oxide battery with the ternary material battery. SANYO, SAMSUNG column battery is the complete production of the lithium cobalt oxide battery to the ternary battery. At present, most of the small high-power power batteries at home and abroad use ternary cathode materials.

Lithium iron phosphate cathode material:

A new type of lithium-ion battery material that has received much attention at present is characterized by excellent safety, no explosion, and excellent cycle performance of up to 2000 weeks. These characteristics make it very suitable for electric vehicles and power tools. Its nominal voltage is only 3.2-3.3V, so its protection circuit is also different from the common lithium-ion battery, but his shortcomings are also obvious, the energy density is much lower than lithium cobaltate and ternary materials.